Tatiana Pavlova. KSP in Independent Ukraine: Vita Heroica vs Vita Minima
© Boris Mikhailov. Ukraine
The breakdown of the Soviet Union and Ukraine's becoming an independent state in 1991 brought out the question of the authenticity of Ukrainian culture. From the very beginning, the Kharkiv photography underground displayed features of its own style. In 1993, at the First International Symposium on Contemporary Arts (Evolution of Contemporary Arts in Ukraine) organized by the Soros Center for Contemporary Art in Kyiv, I formulated these features as dramatization, aestheticism, and hedonism, paradoxically combined with brutality.
The middle of the 1990s was marked by substantial re-grouping of the artistic activity in Ukrainian photography. After the closure of the “Panorama” (see "Avant-garde Red and Green") Sergey Bratkov’s private Up/Down Gallery took on the initiative. This small space became the place to show different conceptual projects, primarily of the Group of Immediate Reaction1.
© Boris Mikhailov. I am not I, 1992
It was in the Up/Down Gallery that Boris Mikhailov’s scandalous I am not I project (1992) was shown for the first time (see video of the opening). The first exhibition of this work mixed ritual and magic with a shade of blasphemy. Entrance to the show demanded involuntary participation in the profanation of the author’s body by stepping over it on the dark stairway. This stairway, then, led into the exhibition space requiring one to participate further in his rehabilitation — the raising and canonization which took place in an interior similar to a Christian chapel being the second part of the action (a family gallery as interpreted by the author). Traditional icons in the exhibition’s opening were replaced by the images of the author, represented naked in erotic hieratic and other poses with various props, among which a dildo was allotted a special meaning. The double fetishization of the image of the 'saint' body and the opposite as the superman’s body (through the number of poses and super-attributes) had their semiotic conflict as the main objective.
The museum version of the exhibition (1994) brought up another conflict: this time between the language of the museum and the kitsch of pornography which caused a scandalous closing of the show (video interview with Valentina Myzgina, Kharkiv Fine Art Museum Director).
Тhis well-known work may be interpreted as a statement about the body, by the body itself, that can be compared to plastic expression of the deaf-mute language. A spectator is forced to defend against the eccentric simplicity and “mindlessness” of the images by looking for their prototypes in photography and classic art. Though this work sums up Mikhailov’s ironic games with porno-photo and attributes of phallocracy by compromising them, the main focus of his work is concentrated on exposing the most important taboo. Mikhailov named it “the last taboo that was not abolished by democracy”.
The Group of Immediate Reaction played a special role in the maturing of Kharkiv photography. It hammered the last nail into the coffin of the utopian dream of Kharkiv Unity.2
© The Group of Immediate Reaction. If I Were a German
The group’s most famous works include Spitting on Moscow (1995) held in the Kharkiv Zoo, A Box for Three Letters, Sacrifice to the God of War, and of course, If I Were a German (all 1994). This controversial piece by Mikhailov, Solonsky, Bratkov (and Vita Mikhailov), was widely successful.
Among the group’s last projects was The Guard (1995), the result of a disappointing visit to Moscow’s Red Square. When Mikhailov, Vita Mikhailova, and Bratkov marched across this sacred spot, the local police saw it as a demarche. It is not surprising that two of their performances (Spitting on Moscow and The Guard) revolved around Moscow, indicative of the efforts to gain independence, to distance themselves from the Moscow-centered approach, which was symptomatic of Ukrainian art of the 1990s.
© Sergey Bratkov. Army girls, 2000
In the late 1990s, Bratkov made several individual projects done, mostly in Moscow in collaboration with the Regina Gallery (curator V. Оvchareko). These were mostly kitsch-style serial portraits, such as Children, Spetsnaz, Future Pilots, Second Hand (all 2000), Khokhlushki (2001), Sea-women, 2004. In 2003 Bratkov participated in the Venice Biennale representing Russia.
© Evgeniy Pavlov. Total Photograph, 1992
Kharkiv photography’s integration into the fine art paradigm in the 1990s was also evident in its dialogue with other art mediums. In 1994, Eugeny Pavlov showed the Total Photograph project as a product of this interartscape3, and later he continued this action-painting experiment in photography through collaboration with the artist Vladimir Shaposhnikov, who joined him in 1996.
Pavlov’s Total Photograph project used his archive of the Soviet period photographs. It was exhibited in the USA. In the multi-layered photographs, William Zimmer (The New York Times) saw a resemblance to Ancient icons, with “their gold backgrounds and frozen expressions on the faces”4.
However, the roots of this archaic impression resided elsewhere. Using Soviet-made materials meant inevitable defects (accidental scratches, dust, and other artifacts) in which Pavlov envisioned some metaphysical information that had to be manually highlighted and emphasized. Another technique of this metaphysical development of photographs came to be 'a brakeless gesture,' easily readable in the color lines and stains laid on the pictures. The destruction of the photographic image was redeemed by the extensive opportunities it offered.
© Evgeniy Pavlov and Vladimir Shaposhnikov. The Common Field, 1996
The project grew and required considerable efforts to overcome barriers between photography and painting, and this was when Vladimir Shaposhnikov came up with an idea, and a collaborative project termed The Common Field (1996) appeared (curator T.Pavlova). Both artists, in turn, applied color to black-and-white photographs from Pavlov’s archive. "The third author," said the artists, "is the place where we find ourselves beyond mutual boundaries.”5
© Evgeniy Pavlov and Vladimir Shaposhnikov. Pairnography, 1998
It had an unusual sequel in the subsequent Pairnography project by Pavlov and Shaposhnikov. Its inclination towards Utopia determined not solely the continued interactive approach, but also the special topic. Paired photographic portrayals were here examined in relation to erotic photography (the project title utilizes a “pair – porno” pun in Russian and Ukrainian). The altered code of sexuality became apparent in an intentional connection of photographs from the 1990s with their hypodynamic plasticity, and a tense expression of the polygonal, pansexual 1970s. The onset of eroticism in post-Soviet society ushered in a deluge of new problems: for instance, those due to the shift of erotic photography from a peripheral commercial genre (a mode in which it had existed since the origins of the photographic process) to the mainstream.
Bodily transformations are of particular interest in the work of Sergei Solonsky. Corporeal fragmentations in his pictures, from the turn of the 1980s—1990s, started the aesthetic revolution in Ukrainian photography. The accent on corporeality and a new wave of expressionism provided energy for the final split with surrealistic fancy, characteristic of the period of the Vremya group. In his 'anthropocreation'' photomontages he started with anatomical research, dissecting the ideal á la Leonardo da Vinci. In the middle of the 1990s, he made a series of module collages, which manifested this interest in anatomy as a distinctive artistic feature6. Solonsky’s collages, which represent 'fantasy' in the corporeal genre, materialize the rare deliverance from the Self, from various taboos, and universality. This unexpected revenge of phallocracy after Mikhailov’s gesture of disapproval in 'He is not He'7 — its invasion into the sacred sphere of cultural symbols — meant, nevertheless, the paradoxical movement aiming at the naturalization of reality.
© Sergei Solonsky. The Bestiary, 1990s
Solonsky’s corporeal collages are, in fact, portraits — and more precisely, portrait–dreams. In his collages, one body dreams about a big musical ear, another about 'the third eye.' The photographer as a constructivist artist analyzes the model and synthesizes it in a new order, making the collages by hand (without the computer, thus anticipating the Photoshop capabilities). These bodies belong to local 'célébrités', therefore close-up details are organically used here as a specific way of looking through the lorgnette at a 'celebrity.' This 'grandma’s looking glass' manner, popular at the turn of the 20th century, as well as the propensity for working by hand in photography (a characteristic feature for Kharkiv school as a whole), give a specific retro-atmosphere to Solonsky’s 'alchemy of the body.' Reconstruction of these alchemy elements corresponds to the topic of cultural mutation.
Representation of the latent smallness of the body interior, its small elements with blood in the first place is a characteristic feature of many actions of Ukrainian photography of the 1990s. 'Medical', 'Leonardo’s', and mythological aspects fill in various levels of this interior topic.
The history of accentuating the naked male body in the photos by Pavlov, Rupin, Mikhailov in the 1970s and Solonsky in the 1980s is concluded in the exploration of the secrets of sexes in the works by Mikhailov, Solonsky, Bratkov (and A. Savadov and I. Chichkan in Kyiv) in the 1990s.
© Andrey Avdeyenko and Alexey Yesunin. An Extraterrestrial Diary, 1999
An Extraterrestrial Diary (1998) by Andrey Avdeyenko and Alexey Yesunin8 was among specific projections of psychosomatic problems. The conceptual narrative in this work regardless of the use of the classical genre of 'the found manuscript' (the 'found' film was developed by Avdeyenko, the 'found' diary deciphered by Yesunin) sounded urgent like a medical report.
The syndrome of a contactor with extraterrestrial civilizations, born in the twentieth century, became especially popular after the fall of the Soviet empire which had pretended to be a cosmic empire as well.9 It resulted in the body being lost again for natural human functions. In the photographs of this project the eyes glide over the bodies without distinguishing them, they are swarming in the light beam of a spaceship, vanishing in the flickering of the flash. The value of the bodies is reduced to 'human waste,' much like bodily life is substituted for the maniacal dominant in an insane mind.
© Igor Karpenko. 1990s
Igor Karpenko, a photographic artist of the absurd, burst upon the scene in the mid-1990s using body acrobatics. His studio pictures offer the sort of surrealism that has become a mainstay of popular culture, projecting familiarity rather than an enigma. The humorous nature of this naive pseudo-surrealism, free of any anxious undertones, made it a viewers’ favorite.
© Evgeniy Pavlov. Detonation of Hippy-end (with musical performance Magic Violin by Andrey Bogatyriov), 2000
In 2000, The Violin by Pavlov was showed in nearly full volume (70 prints) in the art gallery at the Kharkiv Opera and Ballet Theatre. The exhibition was titled The Detonation of Hippy-end. Despite thirty years' distance in time, the power of non-conformism conserved in these prints broke free. This unused footage of a 1970s underground performance with Kharkiv hippies sounded very up-to-date along with the Magic Violin musical performance by Andrey Bogatyriov. Contemporary interest in the hippie movement, with their quasi-aesthetic gestures (nudity being one of those), brought attention to this action from young audiences. The flower-kids used this ritual ‘flower language of nudity as a very powerful sign of disarmament, exposure, and unveiling.
© Oleg Malevany. Metamorphoses, 1993; Carnival, 1999
The aesthetic saturation of the well-known Kharkiv artist Oleg Malevany’s photography is also related to flowers, as in his portraits of women (Metamorphoses, 1993). It was he who developed the liking for the color intervention in the photos of the Kharkiv School community. The red scale played an important part in Malevany’s spectrography, which found its principal expression in the series where red dominated the rest of the chromatic scale. This experimental approach found its ultimate expression in a series of photographs that transcended the boundaries of red, crossing the line (Behind the Line is the actual series title) into the infrared. As a result, symbolic Kharkiv locations are highlighted by irrational allusions, appealing to the effects of nighttime and perhaps, dream time.
© Boris Mikhailov. At Dusk, 1993
© Boris Mikhailov. Case History, 1997—1998 in Yermilov Centre (Kharkiv), 2013
This global subject matter also nurtured Boris Mikhailov’s By the Ground (1991), At Dusk (1993), and Case History (1997—1998), unique in Kharkiv photography for their depictions of the 1990s Ukraine. By the Ground shows narrow side streets with gaping black doorways, dark blind windows of houses, walls with peeling plaster, barrels, bags of cement, wheelbarrows, smoking trash cans, wheel ruts, dirty bare feet, unevenly paved roadways, and other debris. The desolate streets are choked by a heavy gray fog creeping over the pavements like poison gas, but in fact, it is the blue firmament coming down to earth (At Dusk). The abandoned city looks dismal, dark, and frozen. By referencing “vague concepts”, with their system of hedges as “deviations from determinism,” the artist makes his viewers anxious and uncomfortable.
© Evgeniy Pavlov and Vladimir Shaposhnikov. Fragments from The Second Heaven, 2003
1999 saw the beginning of a project (finished in 2003) for which the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel became its means of identification — the instrument of its deciphering. It was The Second Heaven by Evgeniy Pavlov and Vladimir Shaposhnikov (curator Tatiana Pavlova), created to be exhibited on a ceiling in the genre of monumental photography, thus breaking the law described by the immortal slogan of the Soviet epoch: “monumental not momentary."
Here, the gravitational shift attained by an unusual exhibiting location becomes the principal means of seeing and reading one’s own heaven, as an attempt at the spatial embodiment of the typology of contemporary historicism. The canopy of heaven is the ideal place for such a critical analysis of history. The canopy, or vault, itself is an unlimited addition of spaces and dimensions, the lack of which is sometimes felt so acutely by photography. The second discovery of photography in our days — as the technique corresponding most of all with the essence of what had been the first act of creation, the separation of light from darkness — is asserting the genuineness of its purpose. The projectional character of 'drawing by means of light,' or taking a picture with the help of photography, makes it free and easy for us to transfer the 'earth below' to the 'heaven above.'
The photo panels are framed by figures of pageantry, which in the Italian school of painting in the Renaissance epoch were called 'slaves.' Historians argue that the concept of a 'slave' had appeared in ancient Rome even before slavery as an institution was introduced there. This name was given to a human creature which had lost its independent status, almost even his right to live, and therefore was classified with those already dead, with a rather slight chance to be included in the number of those who were really alive (to these belonged prisoners of war, sentenced criminals, etc.). These faceless robots, this cannon fodder of history, whom many people in Ukraine saw not so much as post-Soviet, but rather as neo-Soviet creatures, became part of the project. The long line of these figures became a symbol of the times changing, many generations following one another.
The viewer of The Second Heaven project becomes aware of the fact that its initial elaboration had been carried out beyond the traditional functions of photography, utilizing the active capital which it gained during the recent decades in the so-called "social plastic art." The great amount of the material used in the project and the degree of its generalizations covered by the common roof of Cortasar's architectural fantasies have changed The Second Heaven into a really monumental project. However, no appropriate setting could be found in Kharkiv, and the photographic epic was not displayed on a ceiling. Instead, the interior of the small Municipal Gallery was fully plastered with these three-meter-high photographs when this project was exhibited there in 2004 (see video).
© Evgeniy Pavlov and Vladimir Shaposhnikov. The Second Heaven in Kharkiv Municipal Gallery, 2003
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Kharkiv’s photographic scene centered around the Palitra private gallery, founded by Andrei Avdeyenko and Sergei Vasilenko and located at the eponymous photo studio. From the outset, the gallery dealt primarily with photographic exhibitions and performances; over forty exhibitions took place there.10 The final recognition of Kharkiv photography came when it was exhibited by the Kharkiv Fine Art Museum and the House of Artists.
Palitra Gallery, 1990s
Some photographers, who left Kharkiv in the 1990s, started to return to the city’s cultural landscape in the 2000s. For example, after a long absence, Guennadi Maslov’s work re-entered the Kharkiv art scene (his Halves series, 2002). The works were based on the newly interpreted material from the United States (the author moved to Cincinnati, Ohio in 1993, where he currently lives), Ukraine, and Ethiopia. The images were marked by nostalgia and differed radically from his earlier works, created in the direct photography paradigm of the Gosprom group aesthetics. The brutality and abruptness of the 1980s, a hallmark of the provocativeness of social reportage of that time, were gone. They were replaced by the retro lyricism of the digital gesture, by the reflective escape, by the special square cropping. Maslov says, half in jest, "My works are a reconciliation, an attempt to reconcile the Western and Eastern halves of my brain.”11
© Misha Pedan. Monument, 2003
Another Gosprom group artist, Misha Pedan, also contributed to connecting Kharkiv with the outside world. In 2003, he exhibited his Monument project at the Academia Art Gallery.
Both Maslov and Pedan were a big influence within the Kharkiv photography scene. Besides attracting a wider audience of viewers and admirers, each of them made contacts with the outside world. Maslov arranged several Kharkiv photo exhibitions in the United States. An exhibition of works by Mstyslav Chernov, Igor Manko, and Andrey Avdeyenko took place in the winter and spring of 2015, offering multilevel reflections on the recent events in Ukraine.
© Igor Manko. Golden Ratio of Ukrainian Landscape, 2014
Having established a foothold in the cultural scene of Stockholm, Pedan set himself to bridging the gap between Ukraine and Sweden, especially in the field of photography. Among his successful endeavors was the creation of the Ukrainian Photographic Alternative, an alliance dedicated to promoting alternative approaches in contemporary photography.
Monument by Misha Pedan, 2003 (Academia Gallery)
The threatening dynamics of the involution of man, represented in Kharkiv photography at the turn of the 21st century, show the depth of the psychosomatic crisis. The 'antropocreation' experiment, the revolution of the spirit, the cosmic crusade - all these great projects threatened to surrender a human body into the domain of flora instead of attaining Paradise — this is the futurologist prognosis of the artistic actions this essay has considered. A local problem of contemporary Ukrainian society, namely the search for a strong hero, is also reflected in this art discourse. The conflict between vita heroica and vita minima has remained an ongoing problem of Ukraine’s culture over many centuries and has reached extraordinary incandescence today.
Part 2: 2000—2020
© Roman Minin. Dreams about War, 2012
During the 2000s and 2010s, the Kharkiv School was rejuvenated by young artists, well-known far beyond their native Ukraine — such as members of the 2000s SOSka Lab: Mykola Ridny, Bella Logachova, Roman Minin, and Olena Polyashchenko who started dabbling in photography and photo-based art.
© Bella Logachova. 2015
Bella Logachova, who took a photography course taught by A. Suprun at the Kharkiv Academy of Arts is a graphic artist who often employs photography in her works. Her photo collages were shown as part of the Political Concreteness project, where she was joined by Mykola Ridny with his 'glamorous' self-portraits set against the Ukrainian flag. Ridny’s Reality Bites (2003) continues the tradition typical of Kharkiv photography, and established by Mikhailov and Solonsky, of shocking self-portraits done in medical code, emphasized by the painful subject matter of dentistry and enhanced by sculptural elements (an enormous pair of jaws). The series of macabre self-portraits that comprise The Flies was inspired, according to the artist, by the expressive imagery of E. Pavlov’s Psychosis (1983), published in 1997 in the first of only two issues of the uncensored Ukrainian contemporary-art magazine, Parta.
© Sergei Kochetov. Untitled
The modern period of Kharkiv photography is also of great interest because of another essential aspect: the fact that the Kharkiv photographic legacy has not been wasted on the artists’ descendants. It is always a good sign when children follow in the steps of their fathers. The first was probably Sergei Kochetov, whose father Viktor Kochetov started involving him in his projects from an early age, often letting him color his photographs.
© Ilya Pavlov. At the Belly Level, 2005
Introducing photography into his poster graphics, Ilya Pavlov — who holds a Ph.D. in Photography — created some strictly photographic projects. The series At the Belly Level (2005), utilized a special way of taking pictures, reminiscent of the secrecy prevalent during the underground phase of Kharkiv photography when artists would hold their cameras at stomach level to take pictures inconspicuously.
Meanwhile, Sasha Maslov became a professional photographer. He continued working in the vein pioneered by his father, Guennadi Maslov: a reflection on ways of uniting polar opposites and cultures, adding a social aspect by examining the common search for a compromise. Maslov Jr. was an early dabbler in photographic portraits. Maslov’s most famous work is his series of World War 2 veterans’ pictures taken over a five-year period in twenty different countries.
© Sasha Maslov. Sid Kenrick Warwick, England (from the Veterans series)
Maslov traveled the world invading the privacy of Ukrainian, American, Japanese, Austrian, Russian, and Polish homes just like war invades the privacy of a home, a country, or a region. He combined the Kharkiv school of photography — with its courageous view of gritty, unembellished reality, its knack for finding the joy of life in the tattered quilt of poverty, among gaudy labels that try in vain to hide loss and desolation — and the European approach.
© BOBA group. Furtiture from Gadyach, 2012
The strongest ties with the Vremya group, and the Kharkiv School in general, can be found in the oeuvre of the Shilo and BOBA groups. The artists declare and demonstrate continuity, especially with the work of Boris Mikhailov, Eugeny Pavlov, and Juri Rupin. Vasilisa Nezabarom and Yulia Drozdek used Mikhailov's nickname Bob for their group's name. The group is active in the genre of public art, with the promptness of their responses to social, political, and cultural issues comparable to those of the Group of Immediate Reaction. The BOBA group's Furniture from Gadyach is connected to Mikhailov's Women from Ukraine, Furniture from Europe, in which a smiling naked woman 'advertized' furniture. The group used the furniture they brought from a grandma's home in their shocking family portraits. The explicit and provocative publicity of bodily life connects this project to the Kharkiv School with its love for scandalous gestures. When these images were posted on Facebook, the comments were scathing.
© Shilo’s The Finished dissertation, 2013
Founded in 2010 and among the leaders of contemporary photography in Kharkiv, is the group of young photographers known as Shilo.12 Their works range from a barbaric pastiche of Mikhailov's Unfinished Dissertation and provocative UPA Hände Hoch! to Euromaidan and images from the war zone in the Donbas region.
© Vadym Trykoz. Untitled
Although the maître’s photos have mostly been eliminated from the general content of Shilo's The Finished Dissertation, these 'blind spots' in places where Mikhailov's photos used to be, remain under his patronage, and the aura of his artistic style is maintained. However, the work’s means of expression and tone of voice have changed. The color thickness of the visual layer has increased; the book has become darker, heavier, and engorged with silver. The velvety 'shagginess' of the color texture, which became a hallmark of the three 'Shilos', contributes to that. Everything in Mikhailov's works that had a weak touch of comic demonism, clothed in delicate sfumato of underexposed photo-print, has gained strength and power, achieving the effect of reportage from the darkest depths of Mordor in the coloring of the post-Soviet landscape.13
© Shilo group
While the Vremya group used the myth of Soviet reality in creating their art, this new generation uses the myth of Kharkiv photography and how Soviet reality is perceived through that prism. How can we classify this book by Shilo? What is its genre? We are talking about objets trouvés, about palimpsest; we recollect an adventure novel in the mood of the found manuscripts. The book rewritten by Shilo contains many references to the situation in Kharkiv. Here again, but now twenty-five years later (note Dumas's literary code), there appear the characters of the Kharkiv School — Malevany and Pavlov, Solonsky and Manko, Pedan and Pyatkovka, and, of course, Mikhailov, and, naturally, Krasnoshchok, Lebedynskyy, and Trykoz. And all of this happens against the background of the city. Still, poeticization of the fake reality of the Kharkiv Soviet landscape, largely Stalinist in its central part — ornately decorated with columns with Soviet symbols and with classical pavilions in unexpected locations — takes place under cover of the night. Nightlife and its companions, flaneurs and dogs, are the well-known helioclastic plot from the protest days of the Vremya group, with their anti-imperial symbolism. These themes accurately detect the presence of the phantom of empire on the Ukrainian horizon.
The new generation of Kharkiv photographers that emerged over the last decade received extraordinary motivation for the heroic theme (the current war in the east), galvanizing the Kharkiv School of photography discourse and thus constitutionalizing it. At the same time, it ceased to be a solely local phenomenon, earning a distinct status as an art form.
1. Included Sergey Bratkov, Boris Mikhailov, and Sergei Solonsky.
2. From 1993 to 1997, there were 22 exhibitions held in the Up/Down Gallery, most of them quite provocative in nature. This gallery also housed some of Bratkov’s individual projects, such as Chikatilo’s Diary and No Heaven, 1995.
3. Interartscape — a term that appeared in the course of the project. See: Pavlova T. In the interval of Interartscape in Imago, 1996 / 97, № 3, p.73.
4. Zimmer W. Ukrainian Photos, Rich and Raw in The New York Times, July 23, 1995.
5. Pavlova T. In the interval of Interartscape in Imago, 1996 / 97 (Winter), № 3, p.73.
6. Compare Jackson Pollock’s pop-name Jack the Dripper – and Jack the Ripper being the prototype.
7. Famous Mikhailov’s work was entitled so by D. Neumayer.
8. Bratislava, 1999.
9. For the same reasons, the “Napoleon complex” became widely spread after Waterloo in the nineteenth century.
10. But this small (only 20 square meters) gallery also hosted the exhibition “Unofficial Russian Art of the 1960s” (May 6-27, 1999), which was brought from the United States by A. Glezer and featured works by celebrated nonconformists, such as Oskar Rabin, V. Sitnikov, L. Masterkova, Nikolai Vechtomov, V. Yankilevsky, and others. At the time, photographic exhibitions in Kharkiv were also held at the Municipal Gallery (curated by T. Tumasyan), the Academia Gallery (curated by T. Pavlova), and the ArtHouse Gallery (curated by I. Manko).
11. Maslov G. Artist’s statement in Month of Photography (Catalogue) / Central European House of Photography, Bratislava, 2002, P. 102.
12. Vladyslav Krasnoshchok, Sergiy Lebedynskyy and Vadym Trykoz (Vasilisa Nezabarom belonged to the group at the start, too). Pavlova T. The Kharkiv Photography School.The Shilo Group (V.Krasnoshchok, S. Lebedynskyy, V.Trykoz) in Widok. Czasopismo teorie i praktyki kultury wizualnej (Warszawa, Poland), 2014, #7: http://widok.ibl.waw.pl/index.php/one/article/view/236/422
13. The two-volume book includes such co-projects as Timoshenko's Escape, UPA Hände Hoch!, and Night, as well as individual works Arabat Spit by Lebedynskyy and Hospital by Krasnoshchok.
This essay was originally published under the copyright of the VASA Project and the author. Edited in 2021.
© Tatiana Pavlova, Ph.D. (Dr. of Fine Arts)